# 3 bit alu truth table

** By minimization we imply a function with minimum number of terms and each term with lowest number of literals. This table has 6 inputs (M, S1, S0, C 0, A i and B i) and two outputs F i and C i+1. In many computers and other kinds of processors adders are used in the arithmetic logic units or ALU. Observing that the rows that have an output of 1 are the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 8th, we can write u as a sum of minterms ,,, and . This does not pose a problem in VHDL since they refer to different levels. Please try again later. Due to the popularity of these parts, other manufacturers have released pin-to-pin compatible devices which kept the 7400 sequence number as an aid to identification of compatible parts. babic Presentation F 3 Functioning of 32-bit ALU ALU Control 32 32 32 Result A B 1-bit Adder Truth Table 1-bit Adder ALU: Design a 4-bit full adder circuit with the same four condition codes listed above. An arithmetic logic unit, 5. . An adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. Build an 8-bit ALU. (1 bit addition)and does 3 logical operations namely AND, NOR lines of the multiplexer as shown in the truth table. 1. #parallel shift register truth table. com 74F381 Truth Table The ALU that you will build (see Figure 1) will perform 10 functions on 8-bit inputs (see Table 1). The truth table of a full-adder is listed in Figure 3a. I really owe you my life, this blog has saved me a lot of time of formatting, repartitioning and installing all my OS’s again. In addition, there are two flags for carry (flagC) and zero (flagZ). The ALU supports the operations shown in the table below. A n-bit ALU is a component which performs an operation on two n-bit inputs, A (a n-1a 1 a 0) and B (b n-1b 1 b 0), and produces an n-bit output F. Today, fpga4student presents the Verilog code for the ALU. Although adders can be constructed for many number An adder is a digital logic circuit in electronics that implements addition of numbers. The 12 operations generated in the ALU are summarized in below truth table. Appendix B, Chapter 3. + y3 y2 y1 y0 z3 z2 z1 z0 Arithmetic logic unit (ALU). The ALU will take in two 32-bit values, and 2 control lines. #5 Like need help creating a 4-function 4-bit ALU macro i have no clue An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations. The operations performed by an ALU are controlled by a set of function-select inputs. function. Table 5 - MUX Truth Table. #3 input full adder truth table. The following is the functional truth table. The input to the ALU are 3-bit Opcode, and two 8-bit operands Operand1 and Operand2. Some new inputs and outputs to support the shift functions are also Full-adder is a digital circuit to perform arithmetic sum of two bits and a previous carry. I have a bunch on order for a base for my Shapeoko3. 2 shows the truth tables for each of the three ALU control bits. cout = a * b. 8 to 3 encoder HDL Verilog Code. But if you look at the chip more closely, there are a few mysteries. A common type of decoder is the line decoder which takes an n-digit binary number and decodes it into 2 n data lines. [Arithmetic logic unit. Gate Diffusion Input. Arithmetic and logic Unit (ALU) The OR gate and its truth table is shown in Figure 2. K. Now it has been cleared that 1-bit adder can be easily implemented with the help of the XOR Gate for the output ‘SUM’ and an AND Gate for the ‘Carry’. 3 THE VARIOUS OPERATIONS 16 1. Verilog Module Figure 3 shows the Verilog module of the 8-bit ALU. 5 V, , IN IH per Truth Table VOL Use only the truth table and implement the Sum and Carry out as canonical sums of products. MC14008B 4-Bit Full Adder • Supply Voltage Range = 3. The particular flip flop I want to talk about …2,3,4,5 variable k-map tutorial, karnaugh map minimization or k-map tutorial. 2 LOGICAL OPERATIONS 19 CHAPTER II VHDL & MODELSIM 2. This is the same adder we saw in class. I made a truth table as a start, then I came up with an ALU model, but I am not too confident with it. Truth table of conventional AND gate Fig. Computer: Bit Slices from a Life was converted to HTML for the Web by Frank da Cruz in May 2003 for the Columbia University Computing History Project with permission and collaboration of Dr. 3. In verilog, one circuit is represented by set of "modules". It has 5-bit input, consisting of four 2-bit AND gates inside. Functioning of 32-bit ALU. 32-bit. The ALU has two 4-bit inputs, two function-select inputs, and a carry input. One method consists of writing the truth table for the one-bit ALU. Table 2 shows the truth table of 4X1 multiplexer. This research 37 o Must describe hardware to compute 3-bit ALU control input n given instruction type 00 = lw, sw 01 = beq, 10 = arithmetic (incl. The ALU also accepts control inputs which specify which operation we should perform on A and B. ALU control input Desired Funct field ALU action Instruction ALUOp operation Instruction opcode • Must describe hardware to compute 3-bit ALU control input – given instruction type 00 = lw, sw 01 = beq 10 = arithmetic – function code for arithmetic • Describe it using a truth table (can turn into gates): ALUOp computed from instruction • Must describe hardware to compute 3-bit ALU conrol input – given instruction type 00 = lw, sw 01 = beq, 11 = arithmetic – function code for arithmetic • Describe it using a truth table (can turn into gates): ALUOp computed from instruction type Control ALUOp Funct field Operation ALUOp1 ALUOp0 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 F0 0 0 XX XX XX 010 X 1 XX ALU Control 2 • Must describe hardware to compute 3-bit ALU conrol input – given instruction type 00 = lw, sw 01 = beq, 10 = arithmetic 11 = Jump – function code for arithmetic • Control can be described using a truth table: ALUOp computed from instruction type ALU Control Information ALUOp Funct field Operation ALUOp1 ALUOp0 F5 F4 F3 The truth table of a one bit full adder is shown in the first figure; using the truth table, we were able to derive the boolean functions for both the sum and the carry out, as shown in the second attached figure. PREFACE to Web edition. #4-bit full adder circuit. as we see the ALU has two 16-bit data inputs which we call x and y. The simplest is the 1-to-2 line decoder. Last time, an Arithmetic Logic Unit is designed and implemented in VHDL. The Truth Table of Full Subtractor is Shown Below. System Block Diagram. 0 y1 y2 y3 y0. In many computers and other types of processors, adders are used to calculate addresses, similar operations and table indices in the ALU and also in other parts of the processors. The 1-bit output of the ALU is f. 3 8-bit Arithmetic and Logic Unit Introduction ALU is the fundamental building block of the processor, Figure 2 shows the truth table of the 8-bit ALU. 2015/11/11 · In this post, I want to share the Verilog code for a JK flip flop with synchronous reset,set and clock enable. Prime Implicant and Gate level k-map minimization examples. c_1 c_0 Selects 0 0 XOR 0 1 NOR 1 0 OR 1 1 AND Soln: Considering the truth table given in Table 2, we have a 4 variable B. Check the sheet prior to making a symbol. It is a regulation-sized table that comes with the net set, corner ball holder, and abacus scorer. [4] 2. Record the results of these tests (in the form of a truth table) in your lab template. The first edition was published by Third Millenium Books, Novato I really owe you my life, this blog has saved me a lot of time of formatting, repartitioning and installing all my OS’s again. It represents the fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. #4-bit binary truth table. ca/Digital The relay logic of a bare relay is given in the truth table below. The operation of the arithmetic logic unit is as a result of the truth table …ALU. 5 V, S0 =S3=0V PARAMETER INPUT UNDER TEST OTHER INPUT, SAME BIT OTHER DATA INPUTS OUTPUT UNDER TEST Table 1 – Sample Truth Table Specifications The circuit must take a two 3 -bit two’s complement signed binary numbers (A1A2A3 and B1B2B3) and two control bit s (C1 and C2 ) and produce s three bits output (F1F2F3 ) . They are also utilized in other parts of the processor, where they are used to calculate addresses, table indices, increment and decrement operators, and similar operations. A 1-bit ALU Operation Operation = 00 implies AND A Result Operation = 01 implies OR B 3 ALU control input Function Operations 000 And and 001 Or or 010 Add add, lw, sw Control Truth Table R-format lw sw beq Opcode 000000 100011 101011 000100 Computer Architecture ECE 361 Lecture 5: The Design Process & ALU Design ALU bit slice 7-to-2 C/L 7 3-to-2 C/L ° Truth Table for XOR: Y R O X XYX The truth table will be created using a CAPE Physics pas This video teaches us how to create a truth table in Logisim and use it to construct a logic system. The system block diagram of a 4-bit ALU is shown in the Figure 1. A one-bit full-adder adds The truth table for the full Test your circuit. Learn more about it in their press release Z80 8-Bit CPU Formed on Glass Substrate. We have taken advantage of the common structure in each truth table to The adder in this ALU will add the two inputs and the carry-in, and produce a sum and a carry-out. #binary decoder truth table. The project is a 4-bit ALU in VHDL with a total of 16 operations which includes various arithmetic, logical and data These bit-slices can then be put together to make a 4-bit ALU. Grosch. Verilog Module Figure 3 shows the Verilog module of the 8-bit ALU. Double check the truth table you generated for prelab. The enables and invert signals are not shown for sim-plicity. Overflow. Operation. Step 2. 3 . So this truth table gives ALU Multiplexer Classic List If this is correct the answers to a logical or mathematic functions truth table tells us what combinations of x, y, and switches Use only the truth table and implement the Sum and Carry out as canonical sums of products. A methodology is proposed for the design of a 4-Bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) based on Soft-Hardware-Logic (SHL). registers, simple combinational and sequential logic circuits, bit-sliced ALU, etc. It is a way of minimizing the Boolean functions using diagrams which are made up of squares. XNOR Gate. 2016/12/14 · 80/20 uses 6105-T5 aluminum which is very comparable to 6061. An adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. From the truth table of a full adder and a Karnaugh map, I obtained the functions of the Sum and Carry Out outputs. Line Decoder. These bit-slices can then be put together to make a 4-bit ALU. Table 7 - Timing Delay Summary 12 Objective. Draw the ALU logic circuit diagram using as few as needed 2-input NAND gates. Full adder truth table for the sign bit can be extended to include new output which indicates if overfow condition has occured. Figure3-17. [first attempt]. Hint: Design one bit and repeat 3 additional times. This is a manuscript of the 3rd edition, a work in progress sponsored by the US National Science Foundation. Table 1 - Inverter Truth Table 4. The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) In this part of the lab, you will design a 4-bit ALU. Fig. 3 bit alu truth table 3. 16-bit, uses 6 bit control code. 3. Although I had to dig in some other blogs as well, because it was on my main hard drive, not external, so after I did the very idiotic mistake by deleting my partition table, I …Notice that the same input names a and b for the ports of the full adder and the 4-bit adder were used. The truth table for one bit full adder is shown below: INPUTS OUTPUTS A B CIN COUT S 0 0 0 0 0 The PC (program counter) is a 32-bit register used to hold the address of the current instruction. As with any combinational design, the truth table completely specifies the required comparator bit-slice behavior. [4] 3. (b) Symbols (c) Truth table III. . The SN54/74LS181 is a 4-bit high speed parallel Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). Week 2 Tutorial - Building an ALU . 6 Ex-OR Gate Table 3: Truth table for Ex-OR Gate Design and Implementation of 16-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit using Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA) Technique The function table, truth table & logic diagram are This paper describes the architecture, design & implementation of 2 bit ternary ALU (T-ALU) slice. TABLE OF CONTENTS Candidate’s Declaration iii Certificate iv Acknowledgements v Abstract vi Contents vii List of Figures x List of Tables xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. It Here we have created another module andgate_tb which will include the module andgate. The adder is used to increment the PC to the next instruction. The 74181 ALU (arithmetic/logic unit) chip powered many of the minicomputers of the 1970s: it provided fast 4-bit arithmetic and logic functions, and could be combined to handle larger words, making it a key part of many CPUs. This can be done but may be tedious when it has to be done by hand. William Harrell Q-Implement the parity generator (a) Even (b) Odd for 3-bit message Ans: (a) Following is the truth table and K-map for even parity a b c P(even) So with the above building blocks, lets construct a simple ALU that performs a arithmetic operation (1 bit addition)and does 3 logical operations namely AND, NOR and XOR as shown below. y1. Although I had to dig in some other blogs as well, because it was on my main hard drive, not external, so after I did the very idiotic mistake by deleting my partition table, I couldn’t do it while I’m booting from it. 2 variable K– map plot below: - Each element (0-3) from above table is plotted in k-map below. Now let us try to understand the code. From the truth table, for computing Sum and Carry out (C o u t), This work presents the complete design of a 4-bit reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can A 3-bit decoder and the truth table for a 3-bit decoder A 3-bit decoder has 3 inputs, called 12, 11, and 10, and 2^3 = 8 outputs, called Out0 to Out7. Consider a basic 16-bit ALU which takes two operand inputs A and B, and generates the operation output Y and the status bits C (Carry/borrow), V (oVerflow), N (Negative result), and Z (Zero result). Then add the condition code logic and any additional required logic. The 1-bit ALU is to perform the operations in Table show more Design using Multisim, L-EDIT and SPICE an optimized 1-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) based on Figure 1. This table shows that this ALU is capable of performing 2 arithmetic and 2 logic operations on the 4-bit operands X and Y. 1-BIT ALU How the 1-bit ALU works with diagram shown above ? This adder is called a full adder; it is also called a (3,2) adder because it has 3 inputs and 2 outputs. Figure C. Tim S. So this truth table gives Design the ALU using the smallest MUX possible. Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) An Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) is a digital electronic circuit that executes all arithmetic and bitwise logical operations on the computer, and are the fundamental building blocks of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). Prime Implicant and Gate level minimization examples. 6. A [3:0] and B [3:0]). Design a 4-bit majority function of "1". Let us have a look at a simple 1 bit ALU to understand the concept. Rukhmar is known to spawn south of the Apexis Excavation and …Gaming articles, stories, news and information. HCF40181B is a low-power 4-bit parallel arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of providing 16 transfer in the arithmetic mode, according to the truth table The Control Unit • Decodes Building the ALU Control Unit • Use truth table to determine how output will be 16-bit offset for branch equal, load, and store How to Build Your Own Discrete 4-Bit ALU; How to Build Your Own Discrete 4-Bit ALU. Formulation • Conversion of 4-bit codes can be easily formulated by a truth table Draw a truth table for a 1-bit ALU. Uses same control codes as ALU from the nand2tetris course - the truth table for its most useful functions is reproduced below. Its functions are given in table 1. 2. Arithmetic / Logic Unit – ALU Design g. SOP implementation of a 1-bit full adder Imbed your 1-bit full adder in a subcircuit (see Figure 2), label the subcircuit FA_1. The project is a 4-bit ALU in VHDL with a total of 16 operations which includes various arithmetic, logical and data 1-bit ALU F F0 1 A7 B7 O7 1-bit ALU A6 B6 O6 1-bit ALU A5 B5 O5 1-bit ALU A4 B4 O4 1-bit ALU A3 B3 O3 1-bit ALU A2 B2 O2 1-bit ALU A1 B1 O1 1-bit ALU INC A0 B0 O0 Figure 3-20. The particular function is selected through Table 7. Operations are performed on individual bits. The arithmetic logic unit was designed bit by bit using logic unit, arithmetic unit and multiplexer module and fuller adder. #bcd adder truth table. I have this question which says: Question: indicate if a 4-bit unsigned binary number is in the set {1,2,3,5,9,11,13,14} (d ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT (ALU) DESIGN USING RECONFIGURABLE CMOS LOGIC A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering in The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Half Adder Truth Table Half Adder Truth Table. O The truth table for the decoder is given below. Ruhkmar first spawned on 03 February 2015. Paper Schematic of 3-bit ALU, using 1-bit slices. 3 (a) and 3(b). The truth table will be created Problem 3 Write a truth table for the 1-bit ALU shown below Problem 4 Sketch a 2-bit version of the ALU from problem 3 Problem 5 Write a truth table for the ALU shown below 0 이 1 4-bit arithmetic logic unit 74HC/HCT181 Table 1 SUM MODE TEST Function inputs S0 =S3= 4. Goal. I will be just giving the schematic and the truth table of the These bit-slices can then be put together to make a 4-bit ALU. 74 2. x + y = z for 4-bit integers. This paper outlines the design and testing procedures of a four function Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of 1-bit width. Choudhary2 and Sumant Katiyal3 1Department of Electronics, For the implementation of the two- bit ALU circuit using QCA, initially a one- bit QCA layout was designed and outputs are same as truth table of ALU shown in Table VI. This table has 5 inputs (S1, S0, C0, Ai and The truth table for the eight operations performed by the ALU is shown in Table 2. A half adder, shown in Figure 4. Thus the truth table for Operation0 will have these two entries. Unlike the n2t ALU, this one has carry in and carry out bits. Table 1 shows the truth table of 4-bit ALU. In this design a 4-bit ALU with 3 function- MIPS word is 32 bits wide, so need 32-bit-wide ALU then connect 32 1-bit ALUs. Academia. The proposed #2s complement 4-bit adder subtractor. Fall 2013 . x1 x2 x3 x0 cin cout. Design and Analysis of 16 Bit Reversible ALU www. ) 2. Table 5 - MUX Truth Table 8. 2a. First Test Vector Truth Table: A[3:0]. 1 Signal S2 is connected to logic „0‟ for arithmetic operations, and connected to logic „1‟ for logical operations. Then, we will You could provide an arbitrary 3-operand truth table (8 bits), along with optionally selecting in the carry chain. An The truth table illustrating the operation of this ALU is shown in Figure 7. Lab 3 – Implementing a 4-bit Four Function ALU Objective: display the output of our 4-bit ALU. 32. Eigth 1-bit ALU slices connected together to make an 8-bit ALU Design of a Reversible ALU Based on Novel Table 3. # 74F382 4-Bit Arithmetic Logic Unit ations on two 4-bit words, A and B. babic Presentation F 3 Functioning of 32-bit ALU ALU Control 32 32 32 Result A B 1-bit Adder Truth Table 1-bit Adder An arithmetic-logic unit or ALU performs many different four-bit data inputs X and Y, and a function expand the abbreviated truth table, since the Y in the 2. sum = a + b. D FLIP-FLOP BASED IMPLEMENTATION Digital Logic Design Engineering Electronics Engineering Computer Science Table of Contents: 16-BIT ALU, MSI 4-bit Comparator another important piece the ALU or the Arithmetic Logic Unit. Number D C B A g f e d c b a Use only the truth table and implement the Sum and Carry out as canonical sums of products. Main building blocks of ALU are function selection logic, C-MOS transmission gates & separate processing modules DESIGNOF ALU AND CACHE MEMORY FOR AN 8 BIT MICROPROCESSOR A Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of Clemson University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science Electrical Engineering by Pravin Chander Chandran December 2007 Accepted by: Dr. One option was to write out the full truth table and derive equations for F and V from that. An EADI display showing a moving runway moves down during the final stages of an approach. 1 A Sample ALU An n-bit ALU typically has two input but the truth table shows a relatively simple structure with many don 4-bit ALU Design . 5 V, M = S1 =S2=0V Table 2 DIFFERENTIAL MODE TEST Function inputs S1 =S2= 4. alu – arithmetic logic unit, does the major calculations in the computer, including add and or sub … in mips, the alu takes two 32-bit inputs and produces one 32-bit output, plus some Table of Contents – pages iv-v -. Q-Implement the parity generator (a) Even (b) Odd for 3-bit message Ans: (a) Following is the truth table and K-map for even parity a b c P(even) ALU IC 74181 FUNCTION TABLE datasheet, LS181, S181 Arithmetic Logic Units 4-Bit Arithmetic Logic Unit Product , 16-Bit Synchronous ALU Truth Table Full-adder is a digital circuit to perform arithmetic sum of two bits and a previous carry. Block diagram of an 8-bit magnitude comparator using a bit-sliced magnitude comparator. I need to implement a 4-bit binary ripple carry adder, a 4-bit binary look-ahead carry generator, and a 4-bit look-ahead carry adder. Submit on Canvas your truth/voltage tables, equations, hand-drawn circuit, BDF and annotated simulation results. 3-Bit Ripple Counter â The input count pulses are applied to , change state after the HIGH to LOW transition of the clock. Question Number. Two additional Select 3 www. XOR Gate with Truth Table and VHDL. We have taken advantage of the common structure in each truth table to Building a Circuit Library. For a boolean function of n variables , …,, a sum term in which each of the n variables 2,3,4,5 variable k-map tutorial, karnaugh map minimization or k-map tutorial. 9. The highlighted area is the output of ALU and the QCA simulation Results of one bit ALU is shown in figure 10. Number D C B A g f e d c b a A bit-slice magnitude comparator circuit must have five inputs and three outputs, as shown in the truth table in Fig. 1-bit ALU with AND, OR, Add, Sub, and SLT (3) — In fact we also include the overflow circuit within the 1-bit ALU at the MSB 1-bit ALU of MSB (bit 31) with AND, OR, Add, Sub, SLT, and overflow 0 3 Result Operation a 1 CarryIn 0 1 Binvert b 2 Less Set Overflow detection Overflow Abstract: 7493 flip-flop counter 7493 binary counter diagram 7493 binary counter 7493 Fairchild 7493 4 bit binary counter 935-6 7493 pin diagram 9356 7493 counter truth table Text: outputs as shown in the truth table . According to the rules of maths: 3-2=3+(-2). The result of the operation is presented through the 16-bit Result port. Table 4 - XOR Truth Table 7. ALU. Eight 1-bit ALU slices connected to make an 8-bit ALU. A is the address and D is the dataline. Jul 14, 1996 An n-bit ALU typically has two input words, denoted by A = An - 1, , A0 and B = Bn - 1, , B0. 1 GENERAL 12 1. Notice that the same input names a and b for the ports of the full adder and the 4-bit adder were used. Project: form groups of 3 (preferred) by October 12, I Logic Unit (ALU). Result. com 74F381 Truth Table Design and Analysis of 16 Bit Reversible ALU www. Breaking News! Sharp has built a Z80 CPU on glass. What function is represented by the following binary code: 00. #4-bit 2s complement carry out adder truth table. From the Truth Table The Difference and Borrow will written as Instead of designing the 4-bit ALU as one circuit we will first design a one-bit ALU, also called a bit-slice. A. The table lists 14 micro-operations: 8 for arithmetic, 4 for logic and 2 for shifter unit. 2 Speciﬁcation 2. Objective. 5 1-bit Adder 1-bit Adder Truth Table From the truth table and after minimization, we can have this design for CarryOut Figure B. When we need to add, two 8-bit bytes together, we can be done with the help of a full-adder logic. 1 Adders We present a hierarchy of three adders, leading to a multi-bit adder chip: The truth table of a one bit full adder is shown in the first figure; using the truth table, we were able to derive the boolean functions for both the sum and the carry out, as shown in the second attached figure. VHDL Code for 4-bit ALU 4 bit ALU circuit Reply to Thread Please give truth table. *Not supported in some Verilogsynthesis tools. Thus, as shown in a fig. Only the output cor responding to the binary value of the input is true, as shown in the truth table. From the truth. 1 shows the truth table of conventional AND gate. SPL of MT section @ 0. Consider the 1-bit ALU shown in the book. + z1 z2 z3 z0. Table 6 - 1-bit ALU Truth Table. iosrjournals. Sepideh Roghanchi . B. 5 shows a one bit ALU. C: Carry These bit-slices can then be put together to make a 4-bit ALU. F: z 0 (c 1, c 0, y 0, x 0). (b) A circuit for a half adder. For More Information If you have any questions or comments regarding this course manual, please see the following web site: http://sensor. circuit of ALU has delay of 9 clocks. Truth Table for 1-bit Addition. A full adder is a combinational logic that takes 3 bits, a, b, and carry-in, and outputs their sum, in the form of two bits, carry-out, and sum. The full adder adds 3 one bit numbers, where two can be referred to as operands and one can be referred to as bit carried in. imply that a single chip, called Arithmetic Logical Unit, can be used to encapsulate all the basic arithmetic and logical operators performed in hardware. The following is a list of 7400-series digital logic integrated circuits. Fig 3 shows the 2X1 The truth table illustrating the operation of this ALU is shown in Figure 7. Complete the table below by specifying the outputs (Out and Cout) for the various inputs. And produces 2-bit Hint: Recall that 1-bit addition and subtraction operations require a 2-bit result. Nov 22, 2011 #3. Table 4 - XOR Truth Table. com 74F382 Truth Table Part 3. Go back to the example. so the truth table of a 3 The ALU has 5 1-bit outputs O 4, O 3, O 2, O 1, O 0 (please use on-board LEDs). ALU Control. Design of Low Power 4-bit ALU Using Adiabatic Logic Contents Contents1 List of Figures5 List of Tables7 1 Introduction9 I Basics of computer architecture11 2 Introduction to Digital Electronics13 3 Binary Numbers15 A full-adder is a logic circuit that adds three 1-bit binary numbers x, y and z to form a 2-bit result consisting of a sum bit and a carry bit. The ALU that you will build (see Figure 1) will perform 10 functions on 8-bit inputs (see Table 1). An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations. For example, if x = y = z =1, the full adder should produce Carry = 1, Sum =1, corresponding to the binary number 11, that is 3. you can choose more inputs: 2 control lines is used in a 4-way multiplexor, 3 control lines in an 8-way multiplexor etc. Table 6 - 1-bit ALU Truth Table 11. 4. 1-bit ALU with adder, AND and OR operations. The ALU has 8 inputs and three outputs. Comment by priestguy Rukhmar, Mother of the Kaliri, is one of the gods of Arak and a Warlords of Draenor world boss found in the Spires of Arak in Draenor. Normally, a truth table for a five-input function would require 32 rows. 2 Full Adder A full adder is a combinational circuit that performs the arithmetic sum of three bits: A, B and a carry in, C, from a previous addition, Fig. 5 V, , IN IH per Truth Table VOL MC14008B 4-Bit Full Adder • Supply Voltage Range = 3. • ADD Mode: S0 3. 4-bit arithmetic logic unit 74HC/HCT181 Table 1 SUM MODE TEST Function inputs S0 =S3= 4. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Output[3:0]. The ALU has 3 inputs A, B and Ci, 3 select lines S2, S1 and 3 FSE100 Yinong Chen Contents 1 Logic Design and Specification in Truth Table 2 Building Blocks of Digital Systems 3 Memory Design 4 Arithmetic / Logic Unit (ALU) Design & Testing 5 Simulate a Design in VIPLE For example, the low-order bit of the ALU control (Operation0) is set by the last two entries of the truth table in Figure C. An adder with only the a and b inputs is called a (2,2) adder or half-adder. one register, one ALU one controller or one SOC. /* This is multi line comment */ and // this is single line comment, Comments are same as in C language. There was a problem adding this item to Cart. D 0 is NOT A and D 1 is A. 8 RC Truth Table 36 Table 6. 4 BIT ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT 7 8 6 5 4 3 74 2. The 8 inputs are two 3-bit binary numbers and two control inputs that determine the ALU function. #6 variable truth table. Controlled by . Full-Adder in Verilog Review. 1-bit Adder. Full adder circuit (a) sum-of-products form from above-listed truth table, (b) CarryOut production, and (c) one-bit full adder with carry - adapted from [Maf01]. For each test vector, we first show the corresponding truth table. Note that the data ports should now be 3-bit wide bus. 24. There intersection denotes output function element. dal. We used the 74S181 We used the 74S181 [1] 4-bit ALU design, which was manufactured by Texas Instruments, as the base of the 8-bit design. The operating voltages required are +5 &-5v. 14 Jul 1996 An n-bit ALU typically has two input words, denoted by A = An - 1, , A0 and B = Bn - 1, , B0. 3 Figure. 5 V, , IN IH or VIL per Truth Design the ALU using the smallest MUX possible. Figure 1. Build truth table. #2 Like Reply. An adder is a digital logic circuit in electronics that implements addition of numbers. Since the output of the 4-bit ALU (F[3:0]) is dependant on the signal M, we have 8 bit alu logic diagram wiring diagram 1 bit alu logic diagram wiring diagrams click1 bit alu logic diagram wiring library program counter. AND. In the QuartusII tools, multiply , divide, and mod of integer values is supported. #full adder truth table. org 47 | Page Fig. Var x is horizontal row and y is vertical column. Please make sure you use the same variable name as the ones used in this lab. Let's Make an Adder Circuit. Contents Contents1 List of Figures5 List of Tables7 1 Introduction9 I Basics of computer architecture11 2 Introduction to Digital Electronics13 3 Binary Numbers15Verilog Module Figure 3 shows the Verilog module of the 8-bit ALU. Subcircuit symbol for a 1-bit full adder Task 2-3: Design, Build and Test a 4-Bit Full Adder alu control unit uses aluop bits to generate actual signals Multiple levels reduce size of control unit Potential increase in control unit speed { Mapping from aluop bits and functto 3-bit alu operation functis used only when aluop is 10 Create a truth table of the small number of possibilities Only show those inputs for which the output is de ned ALU Multiplexer Classic List If this is correct the answers to a logical or mathematic functions truth table tells us what combinations of x, y, and switches The ALU has 5 1-bit outputs O 4, O 3, O 2, O 1, O 0 (please use on-board LEDs). ALU perform following function AND logic OR logic NAND logic NOR logic X or logic X nor logic addition subtraction I am not going to design for specific purpose don't mind I made some simple specification for 4 bit processor specification for 4 bit processor 1)4 bit ALU 2)3:8 decoder 3) 4 bit A register ( data register ) 4) 4 bit B register A 3-bit Two’s Complement Binary Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU). Computes all oppperations in parallel. Wikipedia] The logic gate diagram example "2-bit ALU" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. August 18, 2016 by Robin Mitchell. Only slightly more complex is the 2-to-4 The SN54/74LS85 is a 4-Bit Magnitude Camparator which compares two 4-BIT MAGNITUDE COMPARATOR LOW POWER SCHOTTKY J SUFFIX (3) (4) TRUTH TABLE COMPARING INPUTS Build truth table for carry bit. The aircraft must. 2-to-4 Line Coder. The 3-bit input Op will select the operation. The VHDL xnor keyword is used to create an XNOR gate: XNOR Gate with Truth Table and VHDL. fairchildsemi. Aswin Gonzalez . So with the above building blocks, lets construct a simple ALU that performs a arithmetic operation (1 bit addition)and does 3 logical operations namely AND, NOR and XOR as shown below. 1 FLOWCHART 15 1. In Lab Requirement 1. • 32-bit adder is built out of 32 1-bit adders Input Output Figure B. Combines two eight-bit numbers to an eight-bit result. The operation selected depends on the selection lines of the multiplexer as shown in the truth table. 4 bit ALU circuit Reply to Thread Please give truth table. 1: Half-Adder logic and block diagrams Table 3. 4-bit ALU subtraction Posted by David44 in forum: Homework Help. 3 ALU Opcodes and Logical Results for Fig. 1 and 2 below. a 3-bit ALU version implemented in Logisim. Suppose if the select inputs are one bit (S 0) then the ALU perform two operations, similarly if the select inputs are two (S 1 and S 0) then it performs four operations. Make a new symbol for the 3-bit ALU. 1 Verilog Operators. Draw a truth-table Logic Gates - Building an ALU . Build truth table for carry bit. Full VHDL code for the ALU was presented. The proposed system works well as per the truth This logic gate truth table is written as: A B C Each gate can only output a single bit It is a good way to begin to understand how an ALU is able to perform arithmetic. T-ALU Architecture & Working Block diagram & architecture of proposed -ALU is T shown in fig. ALU is a combinational circuit that performs logic and arithmetic micro-operations on a pair of n-bit operands (ex. phys. Granted, the C80 was not a standalone ALU, and is quite a bit more obscure I imagine. This logic gate truth table is written as: A B C Each gate can only output a single bit It is a good way to begin to understand how an ALU is able to perform arithmetic. slt) n function code for arithmetic o Describe it using a truth table (can turn into gates): ALUOp computed from instruction type Control the ALU ALUOp Funct field ALU Control ALUOp1 ALUOp0 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 F0 0 0 X ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) A critical component of the microprocessor, 3 bit control signals To choose the function. Understanding Logic Design Draw a truth table. 2 Figure B. (the 40 series uses m8 T-nuts which work really well with a …A modern Windows PC (or VM) capable of running various CAD and design tools used in this course such as Altium CircuitMaker, Labcenter Proteus, Matlab, and more. Demonstrate the encoder operation on your CPLD board to your TA. Boolean Algebra Examples. 8 RC Truth Table 36 implemented in the design of a 32-bit arithmetic logic unit is demonstrated. Truth table for half adder . 6 Ex-OR Gate Table 3: Truth table for Ex-OR Gate. The original 7400-series integrated circuits were made by Texas Instruments with the prefix "SN" to create the name SN74xx. The arithmetic logic unit was designed bit by bit using logic unit, arithmetic unit and multiplexer module and fuller adder. Our task is to populate the OVERFLOW column with corresponding values. ALU Truth TableHalf Adder and Full Adder circuits with truth tables, by using half adders we can design full adders. Truth Tables. ALU C in B S 4 4 4-BIT BINARY FULL ADDER WITH FAST CARRY The LS83A adds two 4-bit binary words (A plus B) plus the incoming carry. 6, inputs, A0 and B0 will give output F0. Functionally, the operation of typical ALU is represented as shown in diagram below, Functional Description of 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit. Two additional select 3 www. This allowed for even more interesting hybrid operations such as (A + B) AND C. There are different ways to design a bit-slice of the ALU. The ALU will generate an 8-bit result (result), a one bit carry (C), and a one bit zero-bit (Z). The adder in this ALU will add the two inputs and the carry-in, and produce a sum and a carry-out. Left: Frequency response of C173-6-191E on new front panel. A 3-bit input fsel selects the function to be performed. Below are the icons for each, and their truth table. Zero. ALU In many computers and other kinds of processors adders are used in the arithmetic logic units or ALU. as shown in Fig. 3 FSE100 Yinong Chen Contents 1 Logic Design and Specification in Truth Table 2 Building Blocks of Digital Systems 3 Memory Design 4 Arithmetic / Logic Unit (ALU) Design & Testing 5 Simulate a Design in VIPLE For example, the low-order bit of the ALU control (Operation0) is set by the last two entries of the truth table in Figure C. Kelvin Poole, Committee Chair Dr. XOR and XNOR VHDL Project. Lab 3: Building a 1-bit ALU Introduction. 18. Table 6 - 1-bit ALU Truth Table 11. to reveal the final 32-bit ALU. 4 Bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Table 3. Truth table and minimized boolean expression for a 1-bit wide, 2:1 multiplexer. 8V/1 meter. Part I. We will discuss a 4 bit ALU, this would limit many possibilities 16. Truth Table and Schematic. Structure Schematic – 7 components. Figure 5 shows the truth table for this adder. ALU Truth Table Table 1 - Inverter Truth Table 4. is the design and implementation of an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) using area it in 4-bit arithmetic logic circuit (ALU) by the concept. A design schematic is shown below: Figure 1 - 1-bit ALU Design. 7 3. THE ECE 547 VLSI design project described in this paper is an 8-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). You should Below are the icons for each, and their truth table. Table 2 - AND Truth Table 5. another important piece the ALU or the Arithmetic Logic Unit. 5 V, S0 =S3=0V PARAMETER INPUT UNDER TEST OTHER INPUT, SAME BIT OTHER DATA INPUTS OUTPUT UNDER TEST A n-bit ALU is a component which performs an operation on two n-bit inputs, A (a n-1a 1 a 0) and B (b n-1b 1 b 0), and produces an n-bit output F. The operation of the arithmetic logic unit is as a result of the truth table as show below. Please post the truth table of your circuit. B[3:0]. 5. Logic Gate Symbols and Truth Tables: what does a NAND gate look like? 7. The truth table is. 32-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit 19. 1 ARITHMETICAL OPERATIONS 16 1. 74F381 4-Bit Arithmetic Logic Unit ations on two 4-bit words, A and B. The list of operations is partitioned into three sections: logic This may appear daunting, but the truth table shows a relatively 28 Oct 2004 Table 2 - AND Truth Table. Kai Zhao . 2 ABOUT ALU 13 1. 3 bit decimal z: zzzz: 4'bx1: 1-bit ALU F F0 1 A7 B7 O7 1-bit ALU A6 B6 O6 1-bit ALU A5 B5 O5 1-bit ALU A4 B4 O4 1-bit ALU A3 B3 O3 1-bit ALU A2 B2 O2 1-bit ALU A1 B1 O1 1-bit ALU INC A0 B0 O0 Figure 3-20. A 16-bit ALU takes in two 16-bit inputs (data bits), and produces one 16-bit output. This table has 5 inputs (S1, S0, C0, Ai and registers, simple combinational and sequential logic circuits, bit-sliced ALU, etc. 1bit parator design by using different logic download 1bit A seven segment display is an arrangement of 7 LEDs (see below) that can be used to show any hex whose input is a 4-bit number (x[3:0]), 3. Two Bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) in QCA Namit Gupta1, K. It has a 4-bit function output and a carry output as described Table 1 and shown in Figure 2. 1 ABOUT Table 1 - Inverter Truth Table 4. PREFACE to Web edition. Computer Architecture Appendix B a bit challenging Complete the Truth Table for the NAND and NOR Gates 1 1 1 0 – we can replicate a 1-bit ALU to produce a Design of the MIPS Processor ALU control (3-bit) 32 ALU result 32 how to convert a truth table into a logical circuit! The control unit implements the The ALU performs every possible , the following figure shows a glimpse of the logical table that you would obtain We can construct a 4-bit ALU - an ALU that The truth table of a bit-sliced magnitude comparator and the block diagram of a magnitude comparator are shown in Figs. An Truth table for a 6 input AND gate? (ALU) --- The Working Register Array --- the Instruction Decode and Execution Unit --- the Memory Management Unit (MMU) . I know truth tables are pretty easy but I am just confused with this one. Figure 2. Instead of designing the 4-bit ALU as one circuit we will first design a one-bit ALU, also called a bit-slice. Logic Gate Symbols and Truth Tables: what does a NAND gate look like? The function table for the ALU is shown in the table. It may have some modifications in some cases for certain ALU design 2-Bit Arithmetic and Logic Unit: Hello Friends,This is a simple 2 Bit Arithmetic and Logic Unit, its a fun project, it can perform operations like, addition, subtraction, increment, decrements, etc on two 2 bit inputs. Write out the logic expressions for each of the ALU operations. This circuit has two 8-bit Finally, A 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is Figure 4: Structure of an ALU and its Truth Table . This is based on an Arithmetic and logic Unit (ALU) The OR gate and its truth table is shown in Figure 2. We would The truth table can be implemented to form the logic diagram as shown below. For shifter unit, the selection line S1 is used to select either left or right shift micro-operation. The multiplexer selects only one operation at a time. We can imple-ment it using a Mux with 4 - 1 == 3 Arithmetic / Logic Unit – ALU Design g. • Must describe hardware to compute 3-bit ALU conrolinput – given instruction type 00 = lw, sw 01 = beq, 10 = arithmetic 11 = Jump – function code for arithmetic • Control can be described using a truth table: ALUOp computed from instruction type Other Control Information ALUOp Funct field Operation ALUOp1ALUOp0F5F4F3F2F1F0 0 0 X X X X All the information in that one truth table needs to be transposed into using sin and cos through the lookup table in VHDL How to implement a 4 bit ALU in 1. 1: Half-Adder truth table Augend A Addend B----- Sum C Boolean Equations: S = A B= A’B + AB’ C o = AB 3. you will build a 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) that (i) Create a truth table that describes the 1-bit ALU (ii) design the ALU using the smallest MUX possible. Reading. The circuit looks like. you will combine these into a 1-bit ALU that implements the operations AND, OR, and ADD. Homework 3 Due: Tuesday April 30, 2013 (10 points) Provide a truth table for the circuit's function. Maxterms. similar operations and table indices in the ALU and also in other parts of the processors. arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of providing 16 binary arithmetic TRUTH TABLE 3: AC TEST SETUP REFERENCE (ACTIVE-LOW DATA). Converting Truth Tables into Boolean Expressions Chapter 7 - Boolean Algebra In designing digital circuits, the designer often begins with a truth table describing what the circuit should do. 0 Vdc to 18 Vdc TRUTH TABLE (One Stage) Cin BACout S 00 00 0 00 10 1 01 00 1 01 11 0 The project is a 4-bit ALU in VHDL with a total of 16 operations which includes various arithmetic, logical and data calculations performed by coding the ALU in VHDL code. Carry out 1-bit Adder Truth Table. Connecting decision makers to a dynamic network of information, people and ideas, Bloomberg quickly and accurately delivers business and financial information, news and insight around the world. The specification for the ALU is given in the table below. ALU perform following function AND logic OR logic NAND logic NOR logic X or logic X nor logic addition subtraction I am not going to design for specific purpose don't mind I made some simple specification for 4 bit processor specification for 4 bit processor 1)4 bit ALU 2)3:8 decoder 3) 4 bit A register ( data register ) 4) 4 bit B register •Design a 4-bit ALU that implements the following set of operations with only the following components (assume 2’s complement number representation, no need to implement You could provide an arbitrary 3-operand truth table (8 bits), along with optionally selecting in the carry chain. 5: A portion of the datapath used for fetching instructions and incrementing the program counter. 5 V, S0 =S3=0V PARAMETER INPUT UNDER TEST OTHER INPUT, SAME BIT OTHER DATA INPUTS OUTPUT UNDER TEST Cascade three 1-bit ALUs to form a 3-bit ALU. 3 47 implemented in the design of a 32-bit arithmetic logic unit is BCD code for the decimal digits to Excess-3 code • BCD code words for digits 0-9: 4-bit patterns 0000 to 1001, respectively • Excess-3 code words for digits 0-9: 4-bit patterns consisting of 3 (binary 0011) added to each BCD code word Design Example (Contd. 3 bit alu truth table3. We now turn to specify one such ALU, beginning with the speciﬁcation of an adder chip. Addition. Did you know these iPhone apps record your screen while you use them?A. To design Arithmetic Logic Unit. The table below shows the truth table for adding one-bit values A and B, and a carry-in. 1 Spiral 1 / Unit 3 signal by writing a full truth table of the 6-bit opcode ALU Op[0] 000000 100000 0 1 0 100011 010000 0 0 0 16-bit ALU, Register File and Memory W rite Interface do a modification to the 4-bit ALU built in project 1. C: Carry ArithmeticandLogicUnit (ALU) Cost/Speed tradeoff: • n-bitadder: truth table with2n inputs, y3 c y2 c y1 c y0 c A Simple 1-bit ALU 1-3. 3 Figure 2. Figure 3-20. opCode. Table 3 - OR Truth Table. Prelab. 2015/10/21 · Verilog Code for Full Adder using two Half adders - Structural levelWant to bring tournament quality at home? Well, Joola Rally TL 300 is an indoor table of professional grade. [Show full abstract] truth tables, Boolean rules for ternary logic up to ternary logic The system block diagram of a 4-bit ALU is shown in the Figure 1. Diploma Programmes The objective of this programme is to provide a broad base foundation in the related area of sciences as well as applied fields of sciences. Gate-level schematics for the Addition/Subtraction unit, 1-bit and 4-bit 2:1 multiplexers, and ﬁnal ALU design. Questions ALU perform following function AND logic OR logic NAND logic NOR logic X or logic X nor logic addition subtraction I am not going to design for specific purpose don't mind I made some simple specification for 4 bit processor specification for 4 bit processor 1)4 bit ALU 2)3:8 decoder 3) 4 bit A register ( data register ) 4) 4 bit B register 1. ▫. 2: ALU functional block diagrams (with all signals active-high). Today's Lecture. Full Subtractor : A logic Circuit Which is used for Subtracting Three Single bit Binary digit is known as Full Subtractor. The other option, which we chose to execute, was to design a 1-bit ALU, and then combine four of them to create a 4-bit ALU. This page of verilog sourcecode covers HDL code for 8 to 3 encoder with priority using verilog. In order to make this gate as reversible one input and two outputs are to be added so that it becomes a 3x3 reversible gate. decide how the ALU will work. Paper Logic Schematic of 1-bit ALU. Controlled by the three function select inputs (sel 2 to 0), ALU can perform all the 8 possible logic operations. Design a 3-bit binary Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU). Depending on the value of the control lines, the output will be the addition, subtraction, bitwise AND or bitwise OR of the inputs. This chapter is a overview of how Verilog code looks like. Following is the truth table and schematic of the 8 to 3 parity encoder. 0000. 3-bit multipliers - how do they work? For 2x2 bit multiplication, this is the truth table: Since the ALU is performing the add operation, the result of the 1 Sayef Reyadh - Programming Made Simple I have designed a 4 Bit ALU for a certain problem. Smooth as ever. The 74181 ALU (arithmetic/logic unit) chip powered many of the minicomputers of the 1970s: it provided fast 4-bit arithmetic and logic functions, and could be combined to handle larger words, making it a key part of many CPUs. Draw the truth table for each of the ALU operations. Truth table for a bit-sliced magnitude comparator. 3 bit parator logic diagram wiring library 8 bit parator circuit diagram opinions about wiring diagram \u2022 parator truth table logic diagram. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) A critical component of the microprocessor, 3 bit control signals To choose the function. addition operation of single bit is shown in the truth table. bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) using VHDL. Functional Description of 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit. Go over all the Canvas submitted materials with your TA. Don’t make your own. Any input on how to tackle this problem is appreciated. The list of operations is partitioned into three sections: logic This may appear daunting, but the truth table shows a relatively When designing circuitry there are three separate factors that can be optimized: The 32-bit ALU we will build will be a component in the Beta processor we will FN bits abcd are taken as entries in the truth table describing how each bit of Y (Block Diagram and truth table above) A THREE (3) BIT ALU COMPRISING OF THREE ON BIT ALU'S CONNECTED TOGETHER Child sheet of the 3 bit ALU arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of providing 16 binary arithmetic TRUTH TABLE 3: AC TEST SETUP REFERENCE (ACTIVE-LOW DATA). Table 3 - OR Truth Table 6. Eleven-function ALU. Design the ALU using the smallest MUX possible. 4-BIT BINARY FULL ADDER WITH FAST CARRY The LS83A adds two 4-bit binary words (A plus B) plus the incoming carry. Recalling the symbol for the one-bit adder, we can add an addition operation to the one-bit ALU shown in Figure 3. Can some one answer this please2016/06/27 · The ALU can perform AND, OR, XOR, NOR, and add or subtract! If this gets 5 likes I will show you how to make one yourself! 3 likes currently. Below fig 2 shows the 4X1 multiplexer block diagram. You can also read about it on Wikipedia's page on full adders. Part II. Use the Table tab to specify the truth table for . see Figure 5. In a 4 bit ALU, the inputs given are A0, A1, A2, A3 and B0, B1, B2, B3. Draw a truth table for 74F381 4-Bit Arithmetic Logic Unit ations on two 4-bit words, A and B. If we wish to verify this: (,,) = + + + = (′, ′,) + (′,, ′) + (, ′, ′) + (,,) evaluated for all 8 combinations of the three variables will match the table. Boolean Algebra Laws. Truth table design is the efficient method compiling all those functions that are needed. #four input truth table. We have to give values to input, so we need to store or latch the input data. bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). Truth table and equations for 1-bit ALU. 3 together with its truth-table adds together two single bit inputs bits to give a sum bit S, Figure 4. The adder signals from the previous lab, a, b, cin, blk_g, and blk_p are also needed in the ALU. (a) The truth table for 1-bit addition. Modern CPUs contain very powerful and complex ALUs. This result shows the outputs are same as truth table of ALU. 0101. 5 V, M = S0 =S3=0V Table 3 LOGIC MODE TEST Function inputs M = S1 =S2= 4. Abstract: 7493 flip-flop counter 7493 binary counter diagram 7493 binary counter 7493 Fairchild 7493 4 bit binary counter 935-6 7493 pin diagram 9356 7493 counter truth table Text: outputs as shown in the truth table . follows the truth table for a 4 bits XOR logic gate. 5 meter normalised for 2. It is represented in the diagram and truth table below**